Types of Water on Earth

The water is life! All existence is tied to this vital liquid. In fact, almost 70% of your body is made up of water , did you know that? Without water life would not be possible, but in addition, our body needs continuous hydration to keep on working. It is necessary for digestion, facilitates the elimination of toxins, acts as a temperature regulator, transports nutrients … Water is vitality , beauty, purity…

The Different Types of Water

Contrary to what many people think, there is not just one type of water in nature. We can find in nature water of all kinds: own and unfit for consumption, contaminated, with therapeutic properties, etc.

Drinking water

Drinking water is a very special substance; we cannot live without it, and no one should try to live without drinking water. It is truly priceless, and every living organism should have a inalienable right to the quantity they need (something less than 5 litres per day) of clean drinking water. The quantity needed to supply this much to all the world’s people would be about 30 million m3 per day, i.e. one billion m3, or one km 3, per year. Although this sounds like a lot, global water use for all purposes is now estimated to be approaching 5,000 km3 per year, so drinking water represents less than one fiftieth of 1% of the total !

Brackish water

It is a water of cloudy appearance. It has large amounts of salt or other dissolved substance. It can not be consumed by the human being. It is very found in mangrove areas (wetlands near the coast).

Sweet water

Natural water with a low concentration of salts, or generally considered adequate, after treatment, to produce drinking water.


it is the water that we find in rivers, lakes, streams, etc. It has low amounts of minerals and some impurities (if contaminated). It is a water of brown color, because it also has great amount of dissolved earth. To be consumed it must undergo a specific treatment process. When it is clean, it usually houses large amounts of fish. Brazil is a country rich in freshwater thanks to the large number of rivers.

Salt water

It is the known sea water or marine water. It has a large amount of salts, especially the famous cooking salt (sodium chloride). It can not be consumed by the human being.

Contaminated water

Generally present in rivers and lakes that receive sewage or industrial waste. It can not be consumed because it presents microorganisms that transmit diseases or chemicals that harm human health. Generally we find a low existence of animal life in this type of water.

Distilled water

Water with high concentrations of hydrogen and oxygen. It is produced artificially in industries by the distillation process. In nature, it forms during the process of rain. It is a water widely used in automotive batteries or as an industrial reagent. It can not be consumed.

Mineral water

Water that has large amounts of minerals from nature. Some of these waters have therapeutic properties. Some types of mineral waters are suitable for consumption, so much that they are bottled and sold by companies.

Polluted water

It is a type of water mixed with some pollutant. In this case, the water loses its smell and natural color, becoming unfit for consumption.

Hard water

Water containing a large number of positive ions. The hardness is determined by the number of calcium and magnesium atoms present. The soap usually dissolves badly in the hard water.

Soft water

Water without significant hardness.

Black waters

Water supplying a community after being contaminated by various uses. It can be a combination of waste, liquid or suspended, domestic, municipal and industrial, along with groundwater, surface and rainwater that may be present.

Grey waters

Domestic sewage composed of washing water from the kitchen, bathroom, sinks, and sinks.

Sewage water

Residual fluids in a sewage system. The expense or water used by a house, community, farm, or industry that contains dissolved or suspended organic matter.

Municipal wastewater

Liquid waste, originated by a community, possibly formed domestic sewage or industrial discharges.

Raw water

Water that has not received treatment of any kind, or water entering a plant for further treatment.

Dead waters

 Water in a state of scarce or no circulation, usually with oxygen deficiency.

Alkaline water

Water whose pH is higher than 7.

Bottled water

It is, in the Western world at least, something quite different. It is a commodity not unlike wine, except that, where wine is concerned, the stuff in the bottle has real value. Where bottled water is concerned, what we pay for is packaging, transport, advertising, and the profits expected by firms all down the distribution chain. The number of people in the world able and willing to pay these prices is probably well under 60 million. If each consumed 2 litres a day, this would amount to 120,000 m3/day, or about 50 mcm/yr – about one thousandth part of 1% of global water use!

Bulk water

That is also a term increasingly heard in the debate on water policy, but again used without clarity. Whether it is hundreds of m3 in an ocean-going tanker, or thousands of m3 per hour moving down a huge canal, its distinctive characteristics are that:
it is being transported, a long way, to serve some human purpose;
it is not in containers small enough to be carried around by people;
it is also; typically, sufficiently expensive to make its use, except for the highest-valued purposes, uneconomic.

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